History of Curriculum in the Philippines

CURRICULUM EVOLUTION DATES BACK TO PRE SPANISH EPOCH TO THE PRESENT. IF YOU ARE TO COMMENT/CRITIQUE, WHICH OF THE PERIODS WOULD GIVE MERITS OR FAVORABLE COMMENTS? WHICH OF THESE WOULD YOU LIKE TO ERASE IN YOUR MEMORY? SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER.

          THE RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES AND EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE COUNTRY AFFECTED AND SOMETIMES DICTATED THE KIND OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPED IN THAT PARTICULAR EPOCH OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY. COLONIAL RULE IN THE COUNTRY TAILORED THE CURRICULUM TO SERVE COLONIAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.
          BEFORE THE COMING OF THE SPANIARDS THE FILIPINO POSSESSED A CULTURE OF THEIR OWN. THEY HAD CONTACTS WITH OTHER FOREIGN PEOPLES FROM ARABIA, INDIA, CHINA, INDO-CHINA AND BORNEO. THE DIARIES OF FR. CHIRINO ATTEST TO THE HISTORICAL FACT THAT “THE INHABITANTS WERE A CIVILIZED PEOPLE, POSSESSING THEIR SYSTEM OF WRITING, LAWS AND MORAL STANDARDS IN A WELL-ORGANIZED SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. THEY DID NOT HAVE AN ORGANIZED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AS WE HAVE NOW. THEY, HOWEVER, POSSESSED THE KNOWLEDGE AS EXPRESSED IN THEIR WAYS OF LIFE AND AS SHOWN IN THE RULE OF THE BARANGAY, THEIR CODE OF LAWS – THE CODE OF KALANTIAO AND MARAGTAS, THEIR BELIEF IN THE BATHALA, THE SOLIDARITY OF THE FAMILY, THE MODESTY OF THE WOMEN, THE CHILDREN’S OBEDIENCE AND RESPECT FOR THEIR ELDERS, AND IN THE VALOR OF THE MEN.

          DIFFERENT COLONIZERS BROUGHT DIFFERENT CULTURE AND EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM TO THE PHILIPPINES. THE SPANISH CURRICULUM THEN CONSISTED OF THREE R’S – READING, WRITING AND RELIGION WAS IMPOSED WITH THE CURRICULAR GOALS FOR THE ACCEPTANCE OF CATHOLICISM AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF SPANISH RULE.
          THE AMERICAN DEVISED CURRICULUM WAS ALSO DOMINATED WITH THE MOTIVE OF CONQUERING THE FILIPINOS NOT ONLY PHYSICALLY BUT ALSO INTELLECTUALLY.
          JUST LIKE THE SPANIARDS AND THE AMERICANS, THE JAPANESE DEVISED A CURRICULUM FOR THE FILIPINO TO SUIT THEIR VESTED INTEREST. THEY INTRODUCED MANY CHANGES IN THE CURRICULUM BY INCLUDING NIPPONGO AND ABOLISHING ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION AND AS A SUBJECT. ALL TEXTBOOKS WERE CENSORED AND REVISED.
          THE JAPANESE-DEVISED CURRICULUM CAUSED A BLACKOUT IN PHILIPPINES EDUCATION AND IMPEDED THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF THE FILIPINOS.
IN 1945, DURING THE LIBERATION PERIOD, STEPS WERE TAKEN TO IMPROVE THE CURRICULUM EXISTING BEFORE THE WAR. FILIPINO EDUCATIONAL LEADERS, SUCH AS CECILIO PUTONG, PRUDENCIO LANGCAUON, ESTEBAN ABADA, MARTIN AGUILAR, VITALIANO BERNARDINO AND OTHERS TRIES TO DEVELOP A CURRICULUM BASED ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS OF THE FILIPINO CHILDREN AND ON THE NEEDS, PROBLEM, AND RESOURCES OF THE COMMUNITY. HOWEVER, THEIR EFFORTS REMAINED IN THE IDEATIONAL STAGE. THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM REMAINED BASICALLY THE SAME AS BEFORE AND WAS STILL SUBJECT- CENTERED.
          THE GRANTING OF INDEPENDENCE TO THE FILIPINOS LED TO SOME EDUCATIONAL REFORMS IN THE CURRICULUM. GREAT EXPERIMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL IDEA AND THE USE OF THE VERNACULAR IN THE FIRST TWO GRADES OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION WERE SOME OF THEM. SOME OF THE REFORMS WERE MERELY EXTENSIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL TRENDS IN PREVIOUS DECADES. OTHERS WERE IMPLEMENTED IN RESPONSE TO CIRCUMSTANCES IN THE CULTURE. AND STILL OTHERS WERE RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTATION IN THE EDUCATION AND RELATED DISCIPLINES.
          DURING THE NEW SOCIETY UNTIL TODAY, VAST CURRICULAR REFORMS HAVE ALREADY BEEN ESTABLISHED. ALMOST ALL OF THE ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM HAS BEEN COVERED FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRESIDENTIAL EDUCATION DECREE PASSED BY THEN PRESIDENT FERDINAND MARCOS.
          BECAUSE OF THE MANY CHANGES IN THE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM IN THE NEW SOCIETY THAT BROUGHT IMPROVEMENT TO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, OBVIOUSLY, THIS IS THE ERA THAT I’M GOING TO GIVE MERIT.
          ON THE OTHER HAND, THE JAPANESE- DEVISED CURRICULUM WAS NEVER INTENDED TO HELP FILIPINOS PROGRESS BUT TO SERVE THEIR VESTED INTEREST. THE FILIPINOS WERE DEPRIVED OF EVERYTHING DURING THIS ERA. I HATE TO THINK THAT THIS HAPPENED TO OUR FOREFATHERS.

          BY NATURE CURRICULUM IS DYNAMIC. HENCE IT MUST BE VIEWED AS CHANGING AND DEVELOPING.

          AS THE PHILIPPINES IS A COLONIAL COUNTRY, DIFFERENT CULTURES WERE INFUSED INTO OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM BROUGHT ABOUT BY OUR COLONIZERS. COLONIAL RULE IN THE COUNTRY TAILORED THE CURRICULUM TO SERVE COLONIAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES. WE CAN DO NOTHING ABOUT IT SO LET’S FIND WAYS TO MAKE USE OF IT.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Child Centered Curriculum

IF YOU ARE COMMISSIONED TO DRAFT AN EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM, WHAT DESIGN WILL YOU ADAPT – SUBJECT CENTERED, ACTIVITY CENTERED, PROBLEM CENTERED, AND LEARNER CENTERED? WHY THE CHOICE OF THE SAID DESIGN. SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS.
I. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND
TRADITIONALLY, TEACHERS DIRECT THE LEARNING PROCESS AND STUDENTS ASSUME A RECEPTIVE ROLE IN THEIR EDUCATION. WITH THE ADVENT OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY, AND THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOLOGISTS, SOME EDUCATORS HAVE LARGELY REPLACED TRADITIONAL CURRICULUM APPROACHES WITH “HANDS-ON” ACTIVITIES AND “GROUP WORK”, WHICH THE CHILD DETERMINES ON HIS OWN WHAT HE WANTS TO DO IN CLASS. KEY AMONGST THESE CHANGES IS THE PREMISE THAT STUDENTS ACTIVELY CONSTRUCT THEIR OWN LEARNING. THEORISTS LIKE JOHN DEWEY, JEAN PIAGET, AND LEV VYGOTSKY WHOSE COLLECTIVE WORK FOCUSED ON HOW STUDENTS LEARN IS PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MOVE TO STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING. CARL ROGERS’ IDEAS ABOUT THE FORMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING. LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING MEANS REVERSING THE TRADITIONAL TEACHER-CENTERED UNDERSTANDING OF THE LEARNING PROCESS AND PUTTING STUDENTS AT THE CENTRE OF THE LEARNING PROCESS. MARIA MONTESSORI WAS ALSO AN INFLUENCE IN CENTRE-BASED LEARNING, WHERE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN LEARN THROUGH PLAY.

II. BODY/CONTENT
LEARNER-CENTERED CLASSROOMS ARE NOW THE NORM WHERE ACTIVE LEARNING IS STRONGLY ENCOURAGED. STUDENTS ARE NOW RESEARCHING MATERIAL PERTINENT TO THE SUCCESS OF THEIR ACADEMIA AND KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION IS SEEN AS A STANDARD. IN ORDER FOR A TEACHER TO VEER TOWARDS A LEARNER-CENTERED CLASSROOM, HE OR SHE MUST BECOME AWARE OF THE DIVERSE BACKGROUNDS OF HIS OR HER LEARNERS. TO THAT END, THE INCORPORATION OF A FEW EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES SUCH AS BLOOM’S TAXONOMY AND HOWARD GARDNER’S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES CAN BE BENEFICIAL TO A LEARNER-CENTERED CLASSROOM BECAUSE IT PROMOTES VARIOUS MODES OF DIVERSE LEARNING STYLES. THE FOLLOWING PROVIDES A FEW EXAMPLES OF WHY LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO THE CURRICULUM: STRENGTHENS STUDENT MOTIVATION; PROMOTES PEER COMMUNICATION; REDUCES DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR; BUILDS STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS; PROMOTES DISCOVERY/ACTIVE LEARNING; AND, RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONE’S OWN LEARNING.
WITH THE OPENNESS OF A LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION IS VITAL WHEN PROVIDING STUDENTS THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXPLORE THEIR OWN LEARNING STYLES. IN THAT RESPECT, SUCCESSFUL LEARNING ALSO OCCURS WHEN LEARNERS ARE FULLY ENGAGED IN THE ACTIVE LEARNING PROCESS. A FURTHER DISTINCTION FROM A TEACHER-CENTERED CLASSROOM TO THAT OF A LEARNER-CENTERED CLASSROOM IS WHEN THE TEACHER ACTS AS A FACILITATOR. IN ESSENCE, THE TEACHER’S GOAL IN THE LEARNING PROCESS IS TO GUIDE STUDENTS INTO MAKING NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF THE LEARNING MATERIAL.
ACCORDING TO ERNIE STRINGER, “STUDENT LEARNING PROCESSES ARE GREATLY ENHANCED WHEN THEY PARTICIPATE IN DECIDING HOW THEY MAY DEMONSTRATE THEIR COMPETENCE IN A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE OR THE PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS.” THIS PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATION ENABLES THE STUDENT TO ESTABLISH HIS OR HER UNIQUE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. THIS ASPECT OF LEARNING HOLDS THE LEARNER ACCOUNTABLE FOR PRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE THAT HE OR SHE IS CAPABLE OF PRODUCING. IN THIS STAGE OF LEARNING, THE TEACHER EVALUATES THE LEARNER BY PROVIDING HONEST AND TIMELY FEEDBACK ON INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS. BUILDING A RAPPORT WITH STUDENTS IS AN ESSENTIAL STRATEGY THAT EDUCATORS COULD UTILIZE IN ORDER TO GAUGE STUDENT GROWTH IN A LEARNER-CENTERED CLASSROOM. THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS, THE TEACHER IS ABLE TO ADDRESS STUDENT NEEDS, INTERESTS, AND OVERALL ENGAGEMENT IN THE LEARNING MATERIAL. ACCORDING TO JAMES HENDERSON, THERE ARE THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRATIC LIVING, WHICH HE SAYS ARE NOT YET ESTABLISHED IN OUR SOCIETY IN TERMS OF EDUCATION. THE THREE BASIC TENETS, WHICH HE CALLS THE 3S’S OF TEACHING FOR DEMOCRATIC LIVING, ARE:
SUBJECT LEARNING- STUDENTS LEARN BEST FROM SUBJECT MATTER THOUGHTFULLY PRESENTED.
SELF-LEARNING- ONE MUST ENGAGE ONESELF IN THE GENERATIVE PROCESS.
SOCIAL LEARNING- EMPATHY IS WEALTH IN THIS REGARD, SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH DIVERSE OTHERS THE TARGET FOR GENEROSITY.
THROUGH PEER-TO-PEER INTERACTION, COLLABORATIVE THINKING CAN LEAD TO AN ABUNDANCE OF KNOWLEDGE. ACCORDING TO LEV VYGOTSKY’S ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD), STUDENTS TYPICALLY LEARN VICARIOUSLY THROUGH ONE ANOTHER. THROUGH A SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON LEARNING, SCAFFOLDING IS IMPORTANT WHEN FOSTERING INDEPENDENT THINKING SKILLS. VYGOTSKY PROCLAIMS, “LEARNING WHICH IS ORIENTED TOWARD DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN REACHED IS INEFFECTIVE FROM THE VIEW POINT OF THE CHILD’S OVERALL DEVELOPMENT. IT DOES NOT AIM FOR A NEW STAGE OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS BUT RATHER LAGS BEHIND THIS PROCESS.” IN ESSENCE, INSTRUCTION IS DESIGNED TO ACCESS A DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL THAT IS MEASURABLE TO THE STUDENT’S CURRENT STAGE IN DEVELOPMENT.

III. CONCLUSION
TO IMPLEMENT A LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, ATTENTION MUST BE GIVEN TO THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS OF LEARNING:
• WHAT THE CHILD IS CURIOUS ABOUT LEARNING
• TEACHING STRATEGIES TO ACCOMMODATE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS: INTELLECTUAL, EMOTIONAL
• STUDENT’S SOCIAL NEEDS: COLLABORATION, COMMUNICATION, PEER APPROVAL
TO BE CONSIDERED A LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IT WILL BE OPEN, DYNAMIC, TRUSTING, RESPECTFUL, AND PROMOTE CHILDREN’S SUBJECTIVE AS WELL AS OBJECTIVE LEARNING STYLES. STUDENTS MAY COLLABORATE IN HANDS-ON PROBLEMS AND DRAW THEIR OWN CONCLUSIONS. THIS EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING INVOLVES THE WHOLE CHILD — THEIR EMOTIONS, THOUGHTS, SOCIAL SKILLS, AND INTUITION. THE RESULT IS A PERSON WHO IS SELF CONFIDENT AND A CRITICAL THINKER.

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS
DEVELOPING ASSESSMENT THAT SUPPORTS LEARNING AND MOTIVATION IS ESSENTIAL TO THE SUCCESS OF LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACHES. BECAUSE THE FOCUS IS ON INDIVIDUAL LEARNER RATHER THAN WHOLE CLASS STRUCTURES, TEACHERS OFTEN OFFER CHOICES AND ADAPTATIONS WITHIN LESSONS. THIS IS A ROLE TEACHERS MUST BE COMFORTABLE WITH IF THEY ARE TO IMPLEMENT A LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Understanding by Design

EVERYBODY IS JUMPING ON THE “NEW” EDUCATION BANDWAGON CALLED UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN AS A FOCUS OF RECENT CURRICULAR REFORMS. IT IS IMPLEMENTED ON THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THE SECONDARY EDUCATION.
WHAT DO YOU LIKE IN THE UBD? WHAT DO YOU NOT LIKE? WRITE DOWN YOUR REASONS /REACTIONS. CITE THEORIES TO SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER.

I. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND
UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN IS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR EDUCATION ANCHORED ON THE TENET OF “TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING”. THE EMPHASIS OF UBD IS ON “BACKWARD DESIGN”, THE PRACTICE OF LOOKING AT THE OUTCOMES IN ORDER TO DESIGN CURRICULUM UNITS, PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS, AND CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONS. THE UBD FRAMEWORK WAS DESIGNED BY NATIONALLY RECOGNIZED EDUCATORS GRANT WIGGINS AND JAY MCTIGHE.
DEFINED BY WIGGINS AND MCTIGHE, UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN IS A “FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGNING CURRICULUM UNITS, PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS, AND INSTRUCTION THAT LEAD STUDENTS TO DEEP UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONTENT YOU TEACH,” UBD EXPANDS ON “SIX FACETS OF UNDERSTANDING”, WHICH INCLUDE STUDENTS BEING ABLE TO EXPLAIN, INTERPRET, APPLY, HAVE PERSPECTIVE, EMPATHIZE, AND HAVE SELF-KNOWLEDGE ABOUT A GIVEN TOPIC.
BECAUSE OF ITS SUCCESS IN THE UNITED STATES, THE UBD FRAMEWORK SLOWLY MADE ITS WAY INTO THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM. EARLIER IMPLEMENTED IN THE PRIVATE SCHOOLS, THE INTEGRATION OF THE UBD FRAMEWORK IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM WAS BEGUN AS EARLY AS 2007, WITH AN ORDER BY THEN MAYOR ENRICO “RECOM” ECHIVERRI THAT THE FRAMEWORK BE IMPLEMENTED IN THE BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM OF CALOOCAN CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THIS MOVE WAS BACKED BY SENATE RESOLUTION 1295, FILED BY SEN. MANNY VILLAR IN AUGUST 2009, WHICH SUPPORTS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UBD FRAMEWORK IN THE BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM.

II. BODY/CONTENT
TEACHERS, ACCORDING TO UBD PROPONENTS, TRADITIONALLY START CURRICULUM PLANNING WITH ACTIVITIES AND TEXTBOOKS INSTEAD OF IDENTIFYING CLASSROOM LEARNING GOALS AND PLANNING TOWARDS THAT GOAL. IN BACKWARD DESIGN, THE TEACHER STARTS WITH CLASSROOM OUTCOMES AND THEN PLANS THE CURRICULUM, CHOOSING ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS THAT HELP DETERMINE STUDENT ABILITY AND FOSTER STUDENT LEARNING.
BACKWARD DESIGN AIMS AT ELIMINATING TWO COMMON FLAWS IN THE TRADITIONAL METHOD: COVERAGE-FOCUSED TEACHING AND ACTIVITY-FOCUSED TEACHING. IN COVERAGE-FOCUSED TEACHING, EDUCATORS TRY TO COVER ALL TOPICS AS SPECIFIED BY A TEXTBOOK FOR THE WHOLE SCHOOL YEAR, BUT END UP WITH STUDENTS WHO DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHY THEY ARE BEING TAUGHT THIS MUCH INFORMATION. IN ACTIVITY-FOCUSED TEACHING, EDUCATORS COME UP WITH ALL SORTS OF ACTIVITIES THAT STUDENTS PARTICIPATE IN AND ENJOY, BUT AGAIN, STUDENTS DO NOT COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND WHY. THIS IS WHAT BACKWARD DESIGN AIMS TO RESOLVE: TO MAKE STUDENTS UNDERSTAND AND GAIN A DEEPER INSIGHT INTO WHY THEY ARE BEING TAUGHT INFORMATION OR MADE TO PARTICIPATE IN ACTIVITIES.
UBD HAS FOR ITS GOAL THE APPLICATION OF LEARNING TO REAL LIFE. AS SUCH THIS CANNOT BE DONE ON A SINGLE DAY, ON A SINGLE LESSON. BUT EACH SINGLE DAY AND EACH SINGLE LESSON SERVES AS SCAFFOLDING TOWARDS REAL LIFE APPLICATION.
IN ENGLISH PARTICULARLY, UBD SEEMINGLY PRESENTS THE SAME LESSONS EACH GRADING PERIOD FROM FIRST YEAR TO FOURTH YEAR. BUT THIS IS NOT SO. EVERY YEAR, THE LESSONS BECOME MORE COMPLEX ALTHOUGH BASICALLY IT IS UNDER THE SAME “CATEGORY.” YOU MAY ASK, WHO DECIDES TO MAKE IT MORE COMPLEX? THE ANSWER TO THAT IS SIMPLY EACH ONE OF US, THE TEACHERS. IT IS WE OURSELVES WHO KNOW OUR STUDENTS THEREFORE WE SHOULD DIAGNOSE WHAT OUR STUDENTS HAVE LEARNED FROM THE UBD OF LAST YEAR. FROM THERE, BUILD UP THE LESSONS.
UBD IS NOT ABOUT QUANTITY BUT QUALITY. UBD IS ABOUT TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE NOT ABOUT HOW MANY POETRY LESSONS WE HAVE CONDUCTED. OUR MAIN CONCERN SHOULD BE WHETHER OUR STUDENTS ARE ABLE TO TRANSFER WHAT WE HAVE TAUGHT THEM. TRANSFER TO REAL LIFE CONCERNS SHOULD BE OUR DAILY GOAL. WE CONDUCT OUR LESSONS WITH THE OBJECTIVE THAT THEY WILL BE ABLE TO TRANSFER IT.
BUT IT IS SAID THAT THERE ARE ALWAYS TWO SIDES IN A COIN. ON ONE SIDE, UBD EMBRACES THE NUMEROUS MESSY VARIABLES THAT EXIST IN THE REAL WORLD OF TEACHING, AND PROVIDES A TEMPLATE TO CONSTRUCT MEANINGFUL, INTEGRATED LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS. THESE MESSY VARIABLES INCLUDE DIFFERING STUDENT INTERESTS AND ABILITIES, THE STRUGGLE TO KEEP ACTIVITIES ENGAGING AS WELL AS APPLICABLE TO IMPORTANT PREMISES OF A GIVEN DISCIPLINE, AS WELL AS LOGISTICAL RESTRAINTS, SUCH AS TIME AND ACCESS TO RESOURCES.
ON THE OTHER HAND, THE SIX FACETS OF UNDERSTANDING ALLOW THE TEACHER OR ASSESSOR TO ASSERT THAT THE PARTICIPATOR IN A LESSON INFLUENCED BY UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN HAS BEEN ADVANCED FURTHER ALONG AN ARBITRARY LINEAR SPECTRUM CALLED “UNDERSTANDING” THAN MIGHT OTHERWISE HAVE BEEN THE CASE. NO MORE AND NO LESS.

IT IS THEREFORE A USEFUL RUBRIC FOR ACCOMPLISHING SOME PRAGMATIC CLASSROOM TASKS, BUT IT HAS NOTHING NEW TO SAY ABOUT UNDERSTANDING.
IF YOU PLAN LESSONS THAT MAY BROADLY BE DESCRIBED AS
* OPEN ENDED
* BASED ON STANDARDS
* CONTAINING CLEAR CRITERIA FOR STUDENT SUCCESS
* INCLUDE DIFFERENT WAYS TO ENSURE STUDENT ENTHUSIASM
* FLEXIBLE ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE THE “TEACHABLE MOMENT”
* ACCESSING THE HIGHER ECHELONS OF BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
* INTEGRATING SKILLS
THEN THE LIKELIHOOD IS YOU WON’T LEARN ANYTHING NEW FROM UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN. IF YOU DON’T ALREADY DO THE ABOVE, UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN MAY BE A USEFUL TOOL TOWARDS SELF-IMPROVEMENT AS A TEACHER.

III. CONCLUSION
IN GENERAL, UBD IS THE SAME SHEEP IN DIFFERENT COAT BECAUSE MANY TEACHING STRATEGIES HAVE ALREADY BEEN IN USE IN THE FIELD SUCH AS THE DEDUCTIVE AND THE INDUCTIVE METHODS OF DELIVERING THE LESSON. BACKWARD DESIGN AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY CAN EVEN BE TRACED BACK TO THE ANCIENT GREEKS. IN HIS BOOK “HOW TO SOLVE IT” (1945), THE HUNGARIAN MATHEMATICIAN GEORGE POLYA NOTED THAT THE GREEKS USED THE STRATEGY OF “THINKING BACKWARD” BY KNOWING WHAT YOU WANT AS A SOLUTION IN ORDER TO SOLVE A PROBLEM.
OTHER TENETS OF UBD HAVE ALSO BEEN SUPPORTED BY STUDIES INFLUENCING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, SUCH AS ONE BY SMITH, LEE AND NEWMANN IN 2001 WHICH SHOW THAT INTERACTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING HELP STUDENTS LEARN MORE IN READING AND MATHEMATICS. INTERACTIVE TEACHING–DEFINED BY THE STUDY AS “APPLICATIONS OR INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MATERIAL TO DEVELOP NEW OR DEEPER UNDERSTANDINGS OF A GIVEN TOPIC” — ARE SIMILAR TO THE METHODS ESPOUSED BY THE UBD.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? HOW DOES IT FUNCTION AS AN OPEN SYSTEM?

I. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND
ORGANIZATIONS ARE NOT STABLE AND EASILY DEFINED, BUT ARE SHAPED AND ARE POROUS TO THEIR ENVIRONMENTS. ENVIRONMENTS “SHAPE, SUPPORT, AND INFILTRATE ORGANIZATIONS. IN THIS VIEW, PARTICIPANTS DO NOT NECESSARILY HOLD COMMON GOALS OR EVEN ROUTINELY SEEK THE SURVIVAL OF THE ORGANIZATION. PARTICIPANTS IN EFFECT HAVE TRANSITORY COALITIONS (SCOTT).
USING AN OPEN SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE, SCOTT DEFINES ORGANIZATIONS AS “SYSTEMS OF INDEPENDENT ACTIVITIES LINKING SHIFTING COALITIONS OF PARTICIPANTS; THE SYSTEMS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH THEY OPERATE” (P. 25).
KATZ AND KAHN ADD THAT: “ALL SOCIAL SYSTEMS, INCLUDING ORGANIZATIONS, CONSIST OF THE PATTERNED ACTIVITIES OF A NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS. MOREOVER, THESE PATTERNED ACTIVITIES ARE COMPLEMENTARY OR INDEPENDENT WITH RESPECT TO SOME COMMON OUTPUT OR OUTCOME: THEY ARE REPEATED, RELATIVELY ENDURING, AND BOUNDED IN SPACE AND TIME.”
AN OPEN SYSTEM IS A SYSTEM WHICH CONTINUOUSLY INTERACTS WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT. THE INTERACTION CAN TAKE THE FORM OF INFORMATION, ENERGY, OR MATERIAL TRANSFERS INTO OR OUT OF THE SYSTEM BOUNDARY, DEPENDING ON THE DISCIPLINE WHICH DEFINES THE CONCEPT. AN OPEN SYSTEM SHOULD BE CONTRASTED WITH THE CONCEPT OF AN ISOLATED SYSTEM WHICH EXCHANGES ENERGY, MATTER, OR INFORMATION WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT.

II. BODY/CONTENT
AN OPEN SYSTEM IS A SYSTEM THAT REGULARLY EXCHANGES FEEDBACK WITH ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. OPEN SYSTEMS ARE SYSTEMS, OF COURSE, SO INPUTS, PROCESSES, OUTPUTS, GOALS, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION, AND LEARNING ARE ALL IMPORTANT. ASPECTS THAT ARE CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO OPEN SYSTEMS INCLUDE THE BOUNDARIES, EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND OUTCOMES.
ALL SYSTEMS HAVE BOUNDARIES, ALTHOUGH THE BOUNDARIES CAN BE DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY BECAUSE SYSTEMS CAN BE VERY DYNAMIC. OPEN SYSTEMS HAVE POROUS BOUNDARIES THROUGH WHICH USEFUL FEEDBACK CAN READILY BE EXCHANGED AND UNDERSTOOD.
THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INCLUDES A WIDE VARIETY OF NEEDS AND INFLUENCES THAT CAN AFFECT THE ORGANIZATION, BUT WHICH THE ORGANIZATION CANNOT DIRECTLY CONTROL. INFLUENCES CAN BE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL, SOCIETAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL IN NATURE.
A HIGHLY EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION IS REGULARLY EXCHANGING FEEDBACK WITH ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT – IT IS AN OPEN SYSTEM. HEALTHY ORGANIZATIONS REGULARLY TRY TO UNDERSTAND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS THROUGH USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING, MARKET RESEARCH AND EVALUATIONS. THESE ORGANIZATIONS OFTEN TRY TO INFLUENCE THEIR EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT, AS WELL, FOR EXAMPLE, THROUGH USE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS, ADVERTISING AND PROMOTIONS, LOBBYING AND ADVOCACY, AND EDUCATING INDUSTRY AND LOCAL LEADERS.
OUTCOMES ARE CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO THE SUCCESS OF AN ORGANIZATION. OUTCOMES ARE IN REGARD TO THE CHANGES, OR BENEFITS, THAT CUSTOMERS ACCOMPLISH AS A RESULT OF USING A PARTICULAR PRODUCT OR SERVICE.

AN ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS AS AN OPEN SYSTEM THROUGH DIFFERENT PROCESSES SUCH AS:
INPUTS – THESE ARE STANDARD MATERIALS AND CONCEPTS USED BY THE ORGANIZATION, FOR EXAMPLE: PEOPLE, IDEAS, TIME, MONEY, FACILITIES, TECHNOLOGIES, CUSTOMERS, LOCATION, COLLABORATORS, ETC.
PROCESSES – ARE SUBSYSTEMS TO PROCESS THE INPUTS AND GENERATE OUTPUTS, FOR EXAMPLE: INDIVIDUALS, TEAMS, PROJECTS, PROGRAMS, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES, PROCESSES (CROSS-FUNCTIONAL), FUNCTIONS, ETC.
OUTPUTS – ARE TANGIBLE RESULTS FROM THE ORGANIZATION, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, FOR EXAMPLE: TRAINED CUSTOMERS, COURSES, BOOKS, REVENUE, FIXED CARS, PATIENTS, FURNITURE, HOUSES, ETC.
OUTCOMES – THE BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS (IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT) FROM USING THE OUTPUTS, FOR EXAMPLE, CUSTOMERS WHO ARE MORE: HAPPY, FINANCIALLY STRONG, EMPLOYED, LITERATE, INDEPENDENT, HEALTHY, MOBILE, ETC.
FEEDBACK BETWEEN ALL PARTS AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FOR EVALUATION, LEARNING AND ADAPTATION – FEEDBACK IN FROM THE ENVIRONMENT IS ESPECIALLY FROM STANDARD INPUTS, ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING, MARKET RESEARCH AND EVALUATIONS. FEEDBACK OUT TO THE ENVIRONMENT IS ESPECIALLY FROM OUTPUTS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, ADVERTISING AND PROMOTIONS, AND OUTCOMES.

III. CONCLUSION
HEALTHY OPEN SYSTEMS CONTINUOUSLY EXCHANGE FEEDBACK WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENTS, ANALYZE THAT FEEDBACK, ADJUST INTERNAL SYSTEMS AS NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THE SYSTEM’S GOALS, AND THEN TRANSMIT NECESSARY INFORMATION BACK OUT TO THE ENVIRONMENT.
CLOSED SYSTEMS, UNLIKE OPEN SYSTEMS, HAVE HARD BOUNDARIES THROUGH WHICH LITTLE INFORMATION IS EXCHANGED. ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE CLOSED BOUNDARIES OFTEN ARE UNHEALTHY. EXAMPLES INCLUDE BUREAUCRACIES, MONOPOLIES AND STAGNATING SYSTEMS.
OUTCOMES ARE USUALLY SPECIFIED IN TERMS OF CHANGED:
1. KNOWLEDGE (USUALLY SHORT-TERM OUTCOMES).
2. BEHAVIORS, NOTABLY THOSE THAT COMPRISE USEFUL SKILLS (OFTEN INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES).
3. ATTITUDES, VALUES AND CONDITIONS, SUCH AS INCREASED SECURITY, STABILITY OR PRIDE (USUALLY LONG-TERM OUTCOMES).

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS
IN ORDER FOR AN ORGANIZATION TO FUNCTION AS OPEN SYSTEM, IT MUST CONSIDER THAT EVERYTHING IN ITS ENVIRONMENT HAS ITS OWN PURPOSE AND COULD BE UTILIZED IN ORDER TO GAIN A FAVORABLE OUTPUT. IT COULD BE REALIZED BY UNDERGOING THROUGH THE DIFFERENT PROCESSES.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own post, with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh post.

Here are some suggestions for your first post.

  1. You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post.
  2. Add PressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any interesting  page you read on the web.
  3. Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can alway preview any post or edit you before you share it to the world.
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment