History of Curriculum in the Philippines

CURRICULUM EVOLUTION DATES BACK TO PRE SPANISH EPOCH TO THE PRESENT. IF YOU ARE TO COMMENT/CRITIQUE, WHICH OF THE PERIODS WOULD GIVE MERITS OR FAVORABLE COMMENTS? WHICH OF THESE WOULD YOU LIKE TO ERASE IN YOUR MEMORY? SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER.

          THE RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES AND EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE COUNTRY AFFECTED AND SOMETIMES DICTATED THE KIND OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPED IN THAT PARTICULAR EPOCH OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY. COLONIAL RULE IN THE COUNTRY TAILORED THE CURRICULUM TO SERVE COLONIAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.
          BEFORE THE COMING OF THE SPANIARDS THE FILIPINO POSSESSED A CULTURE OF THEIR OWN. THEY HAD CONTACTS WITH OTHER FOREIGN PEOPLES FROM ARABIA, INDIA, CHINA, INDO-CHINA AND BORNEO. THE DIARIES OF FR. CHIRINO ATTEST TO THE HISTORICAL FACT THAT “THE INHABITANTS WERE A CIVILIZED PEOPLE, POSSESSING THEIR SYSTEM OF WRITING, LAWS AND MORAL STANDARDS IN A WELL-ORGANIZED SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. THEY DID NOT HAVE AN ORGANIZED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AS WE HAVE NOW. THEY, HOWEVER, POSSESSED THE KNOWLEDGE AS EXPRESSED IN THEIR WAYS OF LIFE AND AS SHOWN IN THE RULE OF THE BARANGAY, THEIR CODE OF LAWS – THE CODE OF KALANTIAO AND MARAGTAS, THEIR BELIEF IN THE BATHALA, THE SOLIDARITY OF THE FAMILY, THE MODESTY OF THE WOMEN, THE CHILDREN’S OBEDIENCE AND RESPECT FOR THEIR ELDERS, AND IN THE VALOR OF THE MEN.

          DIFFERENT COLONIZERS BROUGHT DIFFERENT CULTURE AND EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM TO THE PHILIPPINES. THE SPANISH CURRICULUM THEN CONSISTED OF THREE R’S – READING, WRITING AND RELIGION WAS IMPOSED WITH THE CURRICULAR GOALS FOR THE ACCEPTANCE OF CATHOLICISM AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF SPANISH RULE.
          THE AMERICAN DEVISED CURRICULUM WAS ALSO DOMINATED WITH THE MOTIVE OF CONQUERING THE FILIPINOS NOT ONLY PHYSICALLY BUT ALSO INTELLECTUALLY.
          JUST LIKE THE SPANIARDS AND THE AMERICANS, THE JAPANESE DEVISED A CURRICULUM FOR THE FILIPINO TO SUIT THEIR VESTED INTEREST. THEY INTRODUCED MANY CHANGES IN THE CURRICULUM BY INCLUDING NIPPONGO AND ABOLISHING ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION AND AS A SUBJECT. ALL TEXTBOOKS WERE CENSORED AND REVISED.
          THE JAPANESE-DEVISED CURRICULUM CAUSED A BLACKOUT IN PHILIPPINES EDUCATION AND IMPEDED THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF THE FILIPINOS.
IN 1945, DURING THE LIBERATION PERIOD, STEPS WERE TAKEN TO IMPROVE THE CURRICULUM EXISTING BEFORE THE WAR. FILIPINO EDUCATIONAL LEADERS, SUCH AS CECILIO PUTONG, PRUDENCIO LANGCAUON, ESTEBAN ABADA, MARTIN AGUILAR, VITALIANO BERNARDINO AND OTHERS TRIES TO DEVELOP A CURRICULUM BASED ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS OF THE FILIPINO CHILDREN AND ON THE NEEDS, PROBLEM, AND RESOURCES OF THE COMMUNITY. HOWEVER, THEIR EFFORTS REMAINED IN THE IDEATIONAL STAGE. THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM REMAINED BASICALLY THE SAME AS BEFORE AND WAS STILL SUBJECT- CENTERED.
          THE GRANTING OF INDEPENDENCE TO THE FILIPINOS LED TO SOME EDUCATIONAL REFORMS IN THE CURRICULUM. GREAT EXPERIMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL IDEA AND THE USE OF THE VERNACULAR IN THE FIRST TWO GRADES OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION WERE SOME OF THEM. SOME OF THE REFORMS WERE MERELY EXTENSIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL TRENDS IN PREVIOUS DECADES. OTHERS WERE IMPLEMENTED IN RESPONSE TO CIRCUMSTANCES IN THE CULTURE. AND STILL OTHERS WERE RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTATION IN THE EDUCATION AND RELATED DISCIPLINES.
          DURING THE NEW SOCIETY UNTIL TODAY, VAST CURRICULAR REFORMS HAVE ALREADY BEEN ESTABLISHED. ALMOST ALL OF THE ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM HAS BEEN COVERED FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRESIDENTIAL EDUCATION DECREE PASSED BY THEN PRESIDENT FERDINAND MARCOS.
          BECAUSE OF THE MANY CHANGES IN THE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM IN THE NEW SOCIETY THAT BROUGHT IMPROVEMENT TO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, OBVIOUSLY, THIS IS THE ERA THAT I’M GOING TO GIVE MERIT.
          ON THE OTHER HAND, THE JAPANESE- DEVISED CURRICULUM WAS NEVER INTENDED TO HELP FILIPINOS PROGRESS BUT TO SERVE THEIR VESTED INTEREST. THE FILIPINOS WERE DEPRIVED OF EVERYTHING DURING THIS ERA. I HATE TO THINK THAT THIS HAPPENED TO OUR FOREFATHERS.

          BY NATURE CURRICULUM IS DYNAMIC. HENCE IT MUST BE VIEWED AS CHANGING AND DEVELOPING.

          AS THE PHILIPPINES IS A COLONIAL COUNTRY, DIFFERENT CULTURES WERE INFUSED INTO OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM BROUGHT ABOUT BY OUR COLONIZERS. COLONIAL RULE IN THE COUNTRY TAILORED THE CURRICULUM TO SERVE COLONIAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES. WE CAN DO NOTHING ABOUT IT SO LET’S FIND WAYS TO MAKE USE OF IT.

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